Ross Macdonald
(pseudonym of Ken Millar)
(1915-83)

"No once since Macdonald has written with such poetic inevitability about people, their secret cares, their emotional scars, their sadness, cowardice, and courage. He reminded the rest of us of what was possible in our genre."
-- John Lutz, in
January Magazine

"We're all guilty"
-- Lew Archer
, in
The Blue Hammer

Kenneth Millar, under the pen name of Ross Macdonald, arguably forms the third point of what is now considered the Holy Trinity of hardboiled detective fiction, the other points being, of course, Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler, and is, to many, the most critically and academically respected of the three.

Although born in Los Gatos, California, December 13th, 1915, he was raised and educated in Canada by his mother, a never particularly healthy woman, and a succession of relatives, after she and his father, a sometime sailor/poet/writer, separated. "I counted the number of rooms I had lived in during my first sixteen years, and got a total of fifty," he has written. This rootlessness, and the hole left by an absent parent, was to become a recurring motif in Millar's fiction.

He attended boarding schools, and in 1938, he took a break from his studies at the University of Western Ontario to travel for a year in Europe, including a visit to Nazi Germany. He returned to Canada, married Margaret Sturm, and acquired advanced degrees and a Phi Beta Kappa key at the University of Michigan. He began to teach and, inspired by his wife's success as a writer (yes, she was THAT Margaret Millar), he began to write. In 1939, their daughter, Linda, was born.

During World War II, perhaps unconciouslesssly following in his seaman father's footsteps, Millar served as communications officer aboard an escort carrier in the Pacific with the American navy. Stationed in California, Margaret went to visit in 1946, and the couple decided to stay on. They lived in Santa Barbara for the rest of their lives. At this point, Millar had gone full circle, returning to his birthplace, with a family once more.

Life was good, or at least appeared to be. Both Millar (under the pen name of first John Macdonald, then John Ross Macdonld and finally Ross Macdonald) and Margaret were regularly being published. Millar has begun a series, featuring private detective Lew Archer, beginning with 1949's The Moving Target.

And yet his past would not be denied--it lurked, waiting to pounce. And his own family life was less than ideal--there were difficulties in the marriage, and Linda was a troubled child. Therapy helped, and 1959's novel, The Galton Case became a watershed, both personally and artistically, in Millar's life. Archer's (and Millar's) obsession with the twisted, secret history of families, and how the sins of the past shape the present, were finally nailed down, for all who cared to see. Although the early Archer's were well-written and tightly plotted, The Galton Case really got down to business. From that point on, it has been noted, Macdonald wrote the same story over and over, endless variations on the same themes of lost and abandoned children, absent parents, family secrets denied. In the hands of a lesser writer, this would amount to hack work, perhaps. But not in Macdonald's hands.

In 1969, a favorable front page review in The New York Times Book Review, by William Goldman,of Millar's latest Archer novel, The Goodbye Look, followed by an interview by John Leonard, finally brought him the critical attention he had always felt was his due, and certainly the critical respect his reputation now has was jump-started by the piece. But his popularity (he supposedly sold a whole hell of a lot of books-one article I read recently mentioned "Stephen King-like sales") must be based on more than a few pieces in the NYTBR.

In fact, as contributor Jim Doherty points out:

"...although the articles referred to did seem to confirm Macdonald's status , they were not the beginning of his being thought of as the "Holy Ghost" to Hammett's "Father" and Chandler's "Son." If there is any one critic who put Macdonald in that august company, it was Anthony Boucher, who once said that, without in the least diminishing his admiration for Hammett and Chandler, he believed that Macdonald was the best writer of the three. I believe he said that in the early '60s. Certainly, critics started using the phrase "in the tradition of Hammett, Chandler, and Macdonald" as early as the '60s. The fact that Knopf was the publisher of all three also lent some gravitas to Macdonald, as did the fact that Hammett's first PI novel appeared in '29, Chandler's in '39, and Macdonald's in '49 made it seem like a natural development in the PI novel was taking place.

While Macdonald may not have been perceived as the equal of Hammett and Chandler as early as the '50s, he was certainly the most critically acclaimed PI writer of that decade. Michael Avallone (RIP) was the one who coined the "Father, Son, & Holy Ghost" quip to describe Hammett, Chandler, and Macdonald, again, I beleive, in the early '60s. The critical and commercial success of the film Harper, based on Macdonald's first novel The Moving Target, in '66 added to his luster. All this predates the articles in Newsweek and the NY Time Book Review. These really were the culmination of a long process of critical acclaim that greeted Macdonald almost from the first."

Were all those fans taken in? For a lot of people, the Lew Archer books are a literary touchstone in their lives, and certainly in mine. I read one, on the recommendation of a friend, and I had soon devoured everyone I could find. And at the time I knew nothing of Macdonald's critical rep, other than a few scattered cover blurbs.

Certainly, some of the puffery about Macdonald, particularly by Macdonald himself, is hard to swallow. And not all the books are that strong. Then again, he wrote lots of books, more than Hammett and Chandler combined. And he did take the crime novel in directions it had never really gone before, and sold a lot of books doing it.

Archer was perhaps the first of the compassionate eyes to truly make a mark, and ushered in a whole new psychological depth to the hardboiled detective story. Millar's other interests included conservation and politics. He charted the fascinating and ever-evolving society of his native state, although his main thrust would be the twisted and hidden secrets of the human heart, the hidden truths that dog victim and murderer alike.And in the long run, he's remained a strong influence on the hardboiled genre, like it or not.

Certainly you can see traces of Archer's compassion (or bleeding heart weenie-ness, depending on your point of view) in the work of Robert Parker, Robert Crais, Michael Collins, Bill Pronzini, Sue Grafton, Joseph Hansen, Jonathan Valin and Stephen Greenleaf, among countless others. Someone must have actually read the books, and not just a few newspaper pieces.

He served as president of The Mystery Writers of America inj 1965, received the Silver Dagger in 1964 and the Gold Dagger in 1965 from The British Crime Writers Association, and in 1981, received The Eye, the Lifetime Achievement Award from The Private Eye Writers of America.

Ken Millar died on July 11, 1983, leaving behind a body of work that has forever left its mark on detective fiction. The Archer novels ask us to not so much solve the mysteries of our own lives, but, even more importantly, perhaps, to try to understand them.

UNDER OATH

  • "If Dashiell Hammett can be said to have injected the hard-boiled detective novel with its primitive force, and Raymond Chandler gave shape to its prevailing tone, it was Ken Millar, writing as Ross Macdonald, who gave the genre its current respectability, generating a worldwide readership that has paved the way for those of us following in his footsteps."
    --
    Sue Grafton, from the introduction to Ross Macdonald: A Biography

  • "(The) American private eye, immortalized by Hammett, refined by Chandler, brought to its zenith by Macdonald"
    -- New York Times Book Review

  • "...the greatest mystery novelist of his age, I would argue, even greater than Chandler."
    --John Connolly, creator of Charlie Parker; cited in The Line-Up.

NOVELS

............

SHORT STORIES

  • as Kenneth Millar
  • "The South Sea Soup Co." (The Grumbler, 1931)
  • "Fatal Facility" (July 29, 1939, Saturday Night; poem)
  • "Find the Woman" (June 1946, EQMM; Lew Archer)
  • "The Sky Hook" (January 1948, American Mercury)
  • "The Bearded Lady" (American Magazine, October 1948; Lew Archer)
  • "Shock Treatment" (January 1953, Manhunt)
  • "The Imaginary Blonde" (February 1953, Manhunt; aka "Gone Girl"; Lew Archer)
  • "Murder in the Library" (1965, Mystery Writers' Annual)
    .
  • as John Ross Macdonald
  • "The Guilty Ones" (May 1953, Manhunt; aka "The Sinister Habit"; Lew Archer)
  • "The Beat-Up Sister" (October 1953, Manhunt; aka "The Suicide"; Lew Archer)
  • "Guilt-Edged Blonde" ( January 1954, Manhunt; Lew Archer)
  • "Wild Goose Chase" (Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, July 1954; Lew Archer)

  • as Ross Macdonald
  • "Midnight Blue" (October 1960, Ed McBain's Mystery Magazine; Lew Archer)
  • "The Sleeping Dog" (April 1965, Argosy; Lew Archer)

COLLECTIONS

  • The Name is Archer (1955; as John Ross Macdonald; Lew Archer)
    Includes "Find the Woman," "Gone Girl," "The Bearded Lady," "The Suicide," "Guilt-Edged Blonde," "The Sinister Habit" and "Wild Goose Chase"

  • Lew Archer, Private Investigator (1977; Lew Archer)
    All the stories from The Name is Archer, plus "Midnight Blue" and "The Sleeping Dog"

  • Strangers in Town: Three Newly Discovered Stories (2001; Lew Archer). Buy this book
    Previously unpublished stories, edited by Macdonald biographer Tom Nolan, one featuring Joe Rogers (who was also in Macdonald's 1st EQMM short, which was later re-written to star Lew Archer) and 2 with Lew Archer.

SHORT NON-FICTION AND ESSAYS

  • "Homage to Dashiell Hammett" 1964, Mystery Writers' Annual)
  • "A Death Road for the Condor" (April 6, 1964, Sports Illustrated)
  • "The Writer as Detective Hero" (January 1965, Show)
  • "Cain X 3" (March 2, 1969, New York Times Book Review)
  • "Life with the Blob" (April 21, 1969, Sports Illustrated)
  • "Santa Barbarans Cite an 11th Commandment: 'Thou Shalt Not Abuse the Earth'" (October 12, 1969, New York Times Magazine; with Robert Easton)
  • "Down These Streets a Mean Man Must Go" (Spring/Summer 1977, Antaeus #25-26)
  • "The Private Detective" (October 23, 1977, New York Times Book Review, also used as introduction to Lew Archer, Private Investigator)
  • "Writing The Galton Case" (1973, On Crime Writing; also includes "The Writer as Detective Hero")
  • "Lew Archer" (1978, The Great Detectives)
  • "A Preface to 'The Galton Case'" (1969, Afterwords: Novelists on Their Novels)
  • "Foreword" (From Archer at Large, an omnibus featuring three of the Archer novels)

FILMS

  • HARPER
    (1966, based on The Moving Target)

  • THE DROWNING POOL
    (1975, based on the novel)

  • BLUE CITY
    (1986, Paramount Pictures)
    Written by Lukas Heller and Walter Hill
    Based on the novel by Ross Macdonald
    Directed by Michelle Manning
    Music by Ry Cooder
    Starring Judd Nelson as Billy Turner
    and Ally Sheedy as Annie Rayford
    Also starring
    David Caruso, Paul Winfield, Scott Wilson
    This one must have really sucked. Itwas nominated for five Razzies, including Worst Picture, Worst Director, Worst Actor (Nelson) and Worst Actress (Sheedy).

TELEVISION

  • THE UNDERGROUND MAN
    (TVM)
    Based on the novel by Ross Macdonald
    .
  • ARCHER
    (series, January-March 1975)
    Based on characters created by Ross Macdonald
    .
  • CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
    (1992,
    Written by Wendell Mayes
    Based on the novel
    The Ferguson Affair by Ross Macdonald
    Directed by Michael Miller
    Starring Farrah Fawcett, A Martinez, Dakin Matthews, John Hancock , Cliff De Young, Angela Paton, Nada Despotovich, Andy Robinson, Hugo Napier, Mark La Mu
    Macdonald's tale of a male lawyer representing a woman accused of theft becomes a made-for-television flick about a female lawyer stalked by a killer. ..

REFERENCES

  • BOOKS
  • Bruccoli, Matthew J.
    Kenneth Millar/Ross Macdonald: A Descriptive Bibliography
    Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1983
    .
  • Bruccoli, Matthew J.
    Ross Macdonald
    Orlando, Florida: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1984
    .
  • Nolan, Tom
    Ross Macdonald: A Biography. Buy this book
    Introduction by Sue Grafton
    New York: Scribner, 1999.
    An important new bio. According to the author bio Nolan reviews mystery fiction for The Wall Street Journal. A lot of focus on his private life ("...recounts Macdonald's relationships with Marshall McLuhan, Eudora Welty, and publisher Alfred A. Knopf, and chronicles his long-running literay rivalry with Raymond Chandler") rather than on his writing career. Respectful of Macdonald, yet still enlightening as to some previously obscure facts/episodes in his history. In Nolan's hands, Ken Millar/Ross Macdonald comes off as a much fuller and sometimes less confident author than he has seemed in earlier bios. (Contributed by Keith Logan)
    ..
  • Sipper, Ralph B.
    Inward Journey: Reflections on Ross Macdonald by 25 of America's Most Distinguished Authors
    New York: The Mysterious Press, 1984.
    .
  • Speir, Jerry.
    Ross Macdonald
    New York: Ungar, 1978
    .
  • Wolfe, Peter.
    Dreamers Who Live Their Dreams: The World of Ross Macdonald's Novels
    Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Press, 1976.

  • ARTICLES
  • "The Mystery of Ross Macdonald" by Matthew J. Bruccoli (January 1984, Saturday Night)
  • "Ross Macdonald's Literary Offenses" by Bill Delaney (Summer 1986, The Armchair Detective, Vol. 19, No. 3)
  • "Seems Like Old Crimes" by Jeff Siegel (1998, Scarlet Street, No. 29 )
  • "The Last Testament of Ross Macdonald" (November 2, 2003, The Boston Globe)
    An article by Leonard Cassuto that reveals and discusses Macdonald's plans for the final Archer book, unfortunately never completed.

RELATED LINKS

  • The Ross Macdonald Files
    More about Ross Macdonald's life and the career of his famous fictional detective.
    .
  • The Case of the Broken-Hearted Father
    David Bowman's intriguing look at the real-life tragedy that haunted Ross Macdonald, and shaped his fiction. Originally published in Salon magazine.
    .
  • 50 Years With Lew Archer: An Anniversary Tribute to Ross Macdonald
    April 1999 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of Ross Macdonald's first Lew Archer detective novel, The Moving Target. To celebrate, the online literary magazine January published a major tribute, an impressive series of essays and interviews related to the author and his works. They also invited dozens of modern crime novelists -- from Lawrence Block and Sue Grafton, to Michael Connelly, S.J. Rozan, Richard North Patterson, Laura Lippman, and Richard Barre-- to share their thoughts on Macdonald's legacy. Includes The Case of the Split Man, an interview Tom Nolan, author of the new "Ross Macdonald: A Biography." And January's crime editor J. Kingston Pierce weighs in with a moving intro, itself worth the price of admission. (And I guess I should mention I have a piece in it, too, but I think I'm there to cleanse the palate between the real writers...)

  • In the Tradition of Hammett, Chandler, Macdonald and Snoopy
    In August 1983, Peanuts creator Charles M. Schulz paid tribute to another great writer (and fellow Santa Barbara resident): Ross Macdonald, who had passed away a month earlier.

Respectfully submitted by Kevin Burton Smith.


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